L-forms are bacterial spheroplasts or protoplasts originating from normal bacteria following partial (spheroplasts) or complete (protoplasts) removal of the cell wall.

The formation of L-forms can be either spontaneous, occuring during certain phase of growth, or artificial due to suppression of the rigid cell wall by stimuli such as enzymes, heat-shock, or special L form induction medium etc.

Bacterial genera from which L-forms have been derived include: Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Bacterodes, Bartonella, Bordetella, Brucella, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Erysipelothrix, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Haemophilus, Listeria, Neisseria, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Sarcina, Serratia, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptobacillus, Streptococcus, and Vibrio.

(14 Oct 1997)

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